Plastic Materials for Heavy Gauge Thermoforming
Productive Plastics, a leading thermoformed plastic manufacturer, offers information on plastic materials for heavy gauge thermoforming. Note – The information provided on this page is basic/general – it is only intended to give an overview of some of the plastic material options available and provide preliminary help to identify possible appropriate plastic materials for a project. The content should be used as reference only. Please Contact Productive Plastics for specific assistance with any of these plastic materials in connection with thermoforming contract manufacturing services.
Productive Plastics is a leading plastic thermoforming contact manufacturer, offering vacuum forming, pressure forming and twin sheet thermoforming along with various value-added services. Productive Plastics specializes in heavy gauge thermoforming contact manufacturing. Please contact Productive Plastics for assistance or to get a quote for custom plastic thermoforming contract manufacturing using any of these plastic materials.
What Plastic Material is Right for An Application?
An important consideration when manufacturing a thermoformed plastic part is the selection of appropriate material. There are a multitude of different types of plastic materials, each with their own specific characteristics, properties, strengths, and weaknesses. Proper selection of the appropriate plastic material for a specific application is an essential component in creating a successful plastic part. Below is some basic information on the different types of plastic materials available for use in the thermoforming process and some considerations that will help determine the right plastic for the job.
Plastic Material Characteristics
Here are some general physical characteristics that are used to describe the unique properties of each plastic material grade. The material selected will depend on the project requirements.
- Impact Strength – how much abuse can a material take before it breaks
- Thermal Conductivity – the amount of heat that can be conducted through the material
- Coefficient of Thermal Expansion – amount of expansion and contraction at a given temperature
- Chemical Resistance – affect of chemical interaction
- Stiffness (Flexural Modulus) – Rigidity of material
- Heat Deflection – the temperature at which the material will distort
- Hardness – material resistance to abrasion, chipping, and cracking
- Flammability – extent to which a material will support combustion
- Mold Shrinkage – amount of shrink after the plastic is removed from the mold
- Forming Range – temperature range at which the plastic can be thermoformed
- Tensile strength – Resistance to being pulled apart
- Dielectric Strength – Electrical insulation
Plastic Material Selection Considerations
Please Note – It should be observed that most plastic materials can be, to various degrees, custom produced with varying compositions of fundamental materials or alloyed with other plastic types, which results in variations of the plastic’s inherent characteristics. However, many physical properties of plastic are in direct conflict with at least one other property. So, maximizing a particular property of a plastic material often has the side effect of weakening another.
For example, if you wanted to maximize the impact strength property of ABS, the basic formula would be modified to include higher amounts of rubber. This would result in a higher desired impact strength, but would consequently make the material softer and less stiff, making it more susceptible to scratches and abrasions. This is especially true for those plastics categorized as engineered plastics, such as ABS.
When determining the right plastic for the job, consider some of the following questions:
|1. What characteristics are most critical to the application?|
Potential Material Choices
Potential Material Choices
|2. What External and Environmental Factors Will the Product be Exposed To?|
|a. Temperature Range vs. Cost|
|b. High Traffic Areas (Impact Resistance)|
|c. Chemical Resistance|
|d. FDA Compliance (FDA compliant formulations can be made available in the following materials)|
|3. What are the design tolerances for dimension and thickness?|
|4. What type of color, transparency, and finish are needed?|
|5. Does the product have flammability requirements?|
|6. Is the product a structural or cosmetic application? Is bending stiffness important?|
|7. Does the product need to be electrically insulated?|
|8. What are the cost considerations?|
Please Contact Productive Plastics for detailed information about any of the questions above or for assistance with any of the plastic materials.
Chart of Plastic Materials – Advantages, Disadvantages and Industry Examples
The following chart provides additional information about various plastic materials and their uses.
|Plastic Material||Advantages||Disadvantages||Industry Examples|
|Polystyrene||Clear plastic, very moldable, inexpensive, recyclable, high chemical resistance, high electrical resistance, heat distortion ~200°F||Cracks and breaks easily||Disposable cups, disposable applications, decorative applications, electrical applications|
(High Impact Polystyrene)
|Very moldable, relatively inexpensive||Marginal crack and break resistance||Picture frames, shower walls, food containers|
|Polyethylene (PE)||Chemically resistant, high impact resistant, high electrical resistance, fairly economical, can be UV protected with additive||High mold shrinkage – not suited for tight dimensional tolerances, cosmetic deficiencies||Pallets, tanks, truck bed liners, tote bins, tanks, self-lubricating tendency makes it ideal for non-stick/low friction applications|
|Polypropylene (PP)||High level of stiffness, light weight, high heat deflection, chemical resistance at room temperatures||Difficult to process, high mold shrinkage||Tool cases, applications with a living hinge, food containers, acid tanks|
(Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)
|Engineered plastic that can be customized to desired levels of stiffness, hardness, heat deflection, and many other characteristics||UV sensitive – requires a UV protective cap layer for extended exposure||Cases of all types, bath tubs, fenders, instrument panels, automotive applications, recreational vehicles, many others|
|Very high chemical resistance, stain resistant, stiffer than ABS, high room temp. impact strength, natural flame retardant qualities||Difficult to process||Shower surrounds, moldings, kick panels, display cases|
|PVC/ABS (alloy)||Easy to process, very cosmetic, dimensional stability, impressions well off a textured tool, maintains tight dimensional tolerances, retains some of PVC’s natural flame retardant qualities||Not as stiff as pure PVC, heat distortion point lower than ABS||Decorative fascia, equipment covers, mass transportation applications, outdoor applications with UV protective cap, many others|
|PVC/Acrylic||Easy to process, highly customizable alloy, high impact resistance, very high chemical and stain resistance||Low heat distortion point ~160°F||Aircraft interiors, medical equipment covers, transportation applications, electronic enclosures, outdoor applications with UV protective cap|
|Polycarbonate||Extremely high impact resistance, high clarity – good for transparent parts, precision molding, good insulator, high heat distortion point ~270°F||Low chemical resistance to certain substances (oil, gasoline, harsh chemicals), can be difficult to process, higher material and processing cost||Visors, plastic guards, transportation components (headlights, taillights, instrument panels), appliance drawers, skylights|
|Polycarbonate/ABS||When compared to true polycarbonate – less expensive, lower heat distortion ~240°F, much easier to process, higher chemical resistance||When compared to true polycarbonate – reduced clarity, lower heat distortion ~240°F||Computer and machine enclosures, electrical applications, cellular phones, automotive applications|
|High impact strength (even at cold temperatures), high dimensional stability (low mold shrinkage), stiffness, high chemical resistance||Can be difficult to process due to material sag during heating||Car bumpers and other automotive applications, chemical shields, gear covers|
|Very easy to process, high clarity – good for transparent parts||Not UV stable – unsuitable for extended exposure||Structural automotive parts, hand tools, industrial components|
Contact Productive Plastics for Plastic Material Selection in Heavy Gauge Plastic Thermoforming Applications
Please Contact Productive Plastics, one of the most innovative thermoforming companies, for assistance or to get a quote for custom plastic thermoforming contract manufacturing using any of these plastic materials.
Request a free Heavy Gauge Plastic Thermoforming Process and Design Guide from Productive Plastics.