Plastic Materials for Heavy Gauge Thermoforming

Productive Plastics, a leading thermoformed plastic manufacturer, offers information on plastic materials for heavy gauge thermoforming. Note – The information provided on this page is basic/general – it is only intended to give an overview of some of the plastic material options available and provide preliminary help to identify possible appropriate plastic materials for a project. The content should be used as reference only. Please Contact Productive Plastics for specific assistance with any of these plastic materials in connection with thermoforming contract manufacturing services.PVC/acrylic components for PET scanner

Productive Plastics is a leading plastic thermoforming contact manufacturer, offering vacuum forming, pressure forming and twin sheet thermoforming along with various value-added services. Productive Plastics specializes in heavy gauge thermoforming contact manufacturing. Please contact Productive Plastics for assistance or to get a quote for custom plastic thermoforming contract manufacturing using any of these plastic materials.

What Plastic Material is Right for An Application?

An important consideration when manufacturing a thermoformed plastic part is the selection of appropriate material. There are a multitude of different types of plastic materials, each with their own specific characteristics, properties, strengths, and weaknesses. Proper selection of the appropriate plastic material for a specific application is an essential component in creating a successful plastic part. Below is some basic information on the different types of plastic materials available for use in the thermoforming process and some considerations that will help determine the right plastic for the job.

Plastic Material Characteristics

Here are some general physical characteristics that are used to describe the unique properties of each plastic material grade. The material selected will depend on the project requirements.

  • Impact Strength – how much abuse can a material take before it breaks
  • Thermal Conductivity – the amount of heat that can be conducted through the material
  • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion – amount of expansion and contraction at a given temperature
  • Chemical Resistance – affect of chemical interaction
  • Stiffness (Flexural Modulus) – Rigidity of material
  • Heat Deflection – the temperature at which the material will distort
  • Hardness – material resistance to abrasion, chipping, and cracking
  • Flammability – extent to which a material will support combustion
  • Mold Shrinkage – amount of shrink after the plastic is removed from the mold
  • Forming Range – temperature range at which the plastic can be thermoformed
  • Tensile strength – Resistance to being pulled apart
  • Dielectric Strength – Electrical insulation

Plastic Material Selection ConsiderationsClear cover application for PETG plastic material

Please Note – It should be observed that most plastic materials can be, to various degrees, custom produced with varying compositions of fundamental materials or alloyed with other plastic types, which results in variations of the plastic’s inherent characteristics. However, many physical properties of plastic are in direct conflict with at least one other property. So, maximizing a particular property of a plastic material often has the side effect of weakening another.

For example, if you wanted to maximize the impact strength property of ABS, the basic formula would be modified to include higher amounts of rubber. This would result in a higher desired impact strength, but would consequently make the material softer and less stiff, making it more susceptible to scratches and abrasions. This is especially true for those plastics categorized as engineered plastics, such as ABS.

When determining the right plastic for the job, consider some of the following questions:

1. What characteristics are most critical to the application?
Amorphous Thermoplastics
  • Conductive to thermoforming
  • Low chemical resistance
  • Transparent applications
  • Distort and soften over a wide temperature range
  • Not suitable for bearing and wear
  • Poor fatigue resistance
  • Conductive to bonding with solvents and adhesives
  • Break down with extended UV exposure unless protective additives or laminates are used
Potential Material Choices
  • ABS
  • Acrylic
  • Kydex®
  • Noryl®
  • PETG
  • Polycarbonate
  • Polystyrene (HIPS)
  • Polysulfone
  • PVC
  • Radel R®
  • Ultem®
Semicrystalline Thermoplastics
  • Difficult to thermoform
  • High chemical resistance
  • Opaque
  • Sharp heat distortion point
  • Good for bearing and wear
  • Good fatigue resistance
  • Resistant to bonding with solvents and adhesives
Potential Material Choices
  • TPO
  • PET
  • Polypropylene
  • PPS
  • PTFE
  • UHMW-PE
  • HDPE
  • LDPE
  • Nylon
  • Acetal
  • PBT
  • PEEK

 

2. What External and Environmental Factors Will the Product be Exposed To?
   a. Temperature Range vs. Cost
Amorphous Thermoplastics

Cost Highest↑ to
Lowest↓
Temperature
Resistance
Ultem® Radel R®
Radel R® Ultem®
Polysulfone Polysulfone
Noryl® Polycarbonate
Polycarbonate Noryl®
ABS Acrylic
Polystyrene Polystyrene
(HIPS) (HIPS)
Kydex® ABS
PVC Kydex®
PETG PVC
Acrylic PETG
Semicrystalline Thermoplastics

Cost Highest↑ to
Lowest↓
Temperature
Resistance
PPS PPS
PEEK Nylon
PVDF Acetal
PTFE PBT
PET PVDF
PBT PTFE
Nylon PET
Acetal Polypropylene
UHMW-PE HDPE
HDPE LDPE
LDPE
Polypropylene
   b. High Traffic Areas (Impact Resistance)
Amorphous Thermoplastics
Izod Impact (notched) Toughness
(ft-lbs/in)
Kydex® 18
Polycarbonate 12 – 16
Radel R® 13
ABS 7.7
Noryl® 3.5
Polystyrene (HIPS) 2
PETG 1.7
Polysulfone 1.3
Ultem® 1
PVC 1
Acrylic 0.4
Semicrystalline Thermoplastics
Izod Impact (notched) Toughness
(ft-lbs/in)
LDPE N/A
UHMW-PE 12 – 16
Polypropylene 13
PTFE 7.7
PVDF 3.5
PEEK 2
PBT 1.7
Acetal 1.3
Nylon 1
PET 1
PPS 0.4
   c. Chemical Resistance
Semicrystalline Thermoplastics
High Chemical Resistance
LDPE
HDPE
UHMW-PE
Polypropylene
PTFE
PVDF
PEEK
PBT
Acetal
Nylon
PET
PPS
   d. FDA Compliance (FDA compliant formulations can be made available in the following materials)
Amorphous Thermoplastics
FDA compliance capable
Radel R®
Acrylic
PETG
Polycarbonate
Polystyrene (HIPS)
Polysulfone
PVC
Ultem®
Semicrystalline Thermoplastics
FDA compliance capable
UHMW-PE
Polypropylene
PTFE
PVDF
PEEK
PBT
Acetal
Nylon
PET
HDPE
LDPE

 

3. What are the design tolerances for dimension and thickness?

 

4. What type of color, transparency, and finish are needed?

 

5. Does the product have flammability requirements?

 

6. Is the product a structural or cosmetic application? Is bending stiffness important?
Amorphous Thermoplastics
Plastic Material Flexural modulus – stiffness (psi)
Ultem® (30% glass) 1,300,000
Polycarbonate (20% glass)    800,000
PVC    481,000
Ultem®    480,000
Acrylic    480,000
Polysulfone    390,000
Noryl®    370,000
Radel R®    350,000
Polycarbonate    345,000
Kydex®    335,000
Polystyrene (HIPS)    310,000
PETG    310,000
ABS    304,000
Semicrystalline Thermoplastics
Plastic Material Flexural modulus – stiffness (psi)
PPS    600,000
PEEK    590,000
Acetal    420,000
Nylon    410,000
PET    400,000
PBT    330,000
PVDF    310,000
Polypropylene    215,000
HDPE    200,000
UHMW-PE    110,000
PTFE     72,000
LDPE     30,000

 

7. Does the product need to be electrically insulated?

 

8. What are the cost considerations?

 
 
Please Contact Productive Plastics for detailed information about any of the questions above or for assistance with any of the plastic materials.

 


Chart of Plastic Materials – Advantages, Disadvantages and Industry Examples

The following chart provides additional information about various plastic materials and their uses.

Plastic Material Advantages Disadvantages Industry Examples
Polystyrene Clear plastic, very moldable, inexpensive, recyclable, high chemical resistance, high electrical resistance, heat distortion ~200°F Cracks and breaks easily Disposable cups, disposable applications, decorative applications, electrical applications
HIPS
(High Impact Polystyrene)
Very moldable, relatively inexpensive Marginal crack and break resistance Picture frames, shower walls, food containers
Polyethylene (PE) Chemically resistant, high impact resistant, high electrical resistance, fairly economical, can be UV protected with additive High mold shrinkage – not suited for tight dimensional tolerances, cosmetic deficiencies Pallets, tanks, truck bed liners, tote bins, tanks, self-lubricating tendency makes it ideal for non-stick/low friction applications
Polypropylene (PP) High level of stiffness, light weight, high heat deflection, chemical resistance at room temperatures Difficult to process, high mold shrinkage Tool cases, applications with a living hinge, food containers, acid tanks
ABS
(Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)
Engineered plastic that can be customized to desired levels of stiffness, hardness, heat deflection, and many other characteristics UV sensitive – requires a UV protective cap layer for extended exposure Cases of all types, bath tubs, fenders, instrument panels, automotive applications, recreational vehicles, many others
PVC
(Polyvinyl Chloride)
Very high chemical resistance, stain resistant, stiffer than ABS, high room temp. impact strength, natural  flame retardant qualities Difficult to process Shower surrounds, moldings, kick panels, display cases
PVC/ABS (alloy) Easy to process, very cosmetic, dimensional stability, impressions well off a textured tool, maintains tight dimensional tolerances, retains some of PVC’s natural flame retardant qualities Not as stiff as pure PVC, heat distortion point lower than ABS Decorative fascia, equipment covers, mass transportation applications, outdoor applications with UV protective cap, many others
PVC/Acrylic Easy to process, highly customizable alloy, high impact resistance, very high chemical and stain resistance Low heat distortion point ~160°F Aircraft interiors, medical equipment covers, transportation applications, electronic enclosures, outdoor applications with UV protective cap
Polycarbonate Extremely high impact resistance, high clarity – good for transparent parts, precision molding, good insulator, high heat distortion point ~270°F Low chemical resistance to certain substances (oil, gasoline, harsh chemicals), can be difficult to process, higher material and processing cost Visors, plastic guards, transportation components (headlights, taillights, instrument panels), appliance drawers, skylights
Polycarbonate/ABS When compared to true polycarbonate – less expensive,  lower heat distortion ~240°F, much easier to process, higher chemical resistance When compared to true polycarbonate – reduced clarity,  lower heat distortion ~240°F Computer and machine enclosures, electrical applications, cellular phones, automotive applications
TPO
(thermoplastic olefin)
High impact strength (even at cold temperatures), high dimensional stability (low mold shrinkage), stiffness, high chemical resistance Can be difficult to process due to material sag during heating Car bumpers and other automotive applications, chemical shields, gear covers
PETG
(polyethylene-terephthalate)
Very easy to process, high clarity – good for transparent parts Not UV stable – unsuitable for extended exposure Structural automotive parts, hand tools, industrial components

 


Contact Productive Plastics for Plastic Material Selection in Heavy Gauge Plastic Thermoforming Applications

Please Contact Productive Plastics, one of the most innovative thermoforming companies, for assistance or to get a quote for custom plastic thermoforming contract manufacturing using any of these plastic materials.

Request a free Heavy Gauge Plastic Thermoforming Process and Design Guide from Productive Plastics.